Forward Memphis Depay swept in a cross from Denzel Dumfries to break the deadlock in the 10th minute.
The Dutch doubled the gap in stoppage time as Daley Blind got on the end of another Dumfries cross to rifle in a low shot past goalkeeper Matt Turner.
Haji Wright pulled one back for the Americans in the 75th minute, sparking hopes of a comeback.
The Netherlands, however, quickly stamped out the resurgence.
Blind turned provider for Dumfries in the 81st minute, finding him unmarked at the back post with a pinpoint cross for a simple finish.
The Netherlands will take on either Argentina or Australia, who play later on Saturday, in the quarterfinals.
The US’ exit means there is now no CONCACAF team left in Qatar, with Canada, Mexico, and Costa Rica all previously eliminated.
The Americans have a guaranteed spot at the next World Cup as they will co-host the 2026 edition with Mexico and Canada.
Source: Anadolu Agency